Kurdistan is a federal region within Iraq. Established in 1991, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) operates under a parliamentary democracy system.

The Iraqi constitution recognizes the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) and the Kurdistan Parliament as the official governmental institutions of the KRI and identifies the Peshmerga as its military force.

Article 117 of the Iraqi constitution recognizes Kurdistan as a federal region of Iraq.

The KRG, as the autonomous governing body of the KRI, holds constitutionally recognized authority over the governorates of Erbil, Duhok, Slemani, and Halabja.

The KRI, which borders Syria to the west, Türkiye to the north, and Iran to the east, covers a total area of 40,643 km2.

The Iraqi constitution grants the KRG authority to exercise legislative and executive powers in certain areas, including security, education, health policies, natural resources management, and infrastructure development.

The KRI possesses an independent judicial system, headed by the Supreme Court of Cassation, which adjudicates cases of the utmost importance and those appealed from lower courts. Additionally, this judicial system includes several lower courts that rule on commercial and criminal disputes.

Photo Credit: Kurdistan Parliament

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