Kurdistan is a federal region of Iraq. Established in 1991, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) is run by a parliamentary democracy.

Iraq’s constitution recognizes the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) and the Kurdistan Parliament as Kurdistan’s governmental institutions and identifies the Peshmerga as the Kurdistan Region of Iraq’s security force.

Article 117 of the Iraqi constitution recognizes Kurdistan as a federal region of Iraq.

The KRG is the autonomous governing body of the KRI and holds constitutionally recognized authority over the governorates of Erbil, Duhok, Slemani, and Halabja.

The KRI, which borders Syria to the west, Turkey to the north, and Iran to the east, comprises a total area of 40,643 km2.

The Iraqi constitution gives the KRG authority to exercise legislative and executive authority in certain areas, including allocating the regional budget, security, education and health policies, natural resources management, and infrastructure development.

The KRI has an independent judicial system. The system is headed by
a Supreme Court of Cassation, which decides cases of the highest importance, as well as cases that have been appealed through lower courts. The judicial system also has a number of lower courts that decide on commercial and criminal disputes.

KRI at a glance

First Elections 1992
Election Term 4 years
StatusFederal Region
Political StructureParliamentary Democracy
Legislative Power111-seat Kurdistan Parliament

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